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ABOUT RARE EARTH

Rare Earth Metal Importer In India (“REEs”) or Rare Earth Metals are a Set of seventeen Chemical Elements in the Periodic table. Especially the Fifteen Lanthanides plus Scandium and Yttrium. Scandium and Yttrium are considered as Rare Earth Elements since they tend to occur in the same ore deposits as the Lanthanides and they exhibit similar Chemical properties.

Despite their name, Rare Earth Elements (with the exception of the radioactive promethium) are relatively plentiful in the Earth’s crust. With Cerium being the 25th most Abundant Element at 68 parts per million (similar to copper). However, Because of their Geochemical properties, Rare Earth Elements are typically dispersed and not often found in concentrated and economically exploitable forms. The few economically exploitable deposits are also known as Rare Earth Minerals. It was the very scarcity of these minerals (previously called “earths”) that led to the term “rare earth”. The first such mineral discovered was gadolinite, That was a Compound of Cerium, Yttrium, Iron, Silicon and other Elements.

Rare earth elements are heavier than Iron and thus are produced by Supernova Nucleosynthesis or the S-process in asymptotic giant branch stars. Spontaneous fission of Uranium-238 produces trace amounts of Radioactive Promethium in Nature, But most Promethium is synthetically produced in nuclear reactors. These change through time in small quantities (ppm, parts per million), So their proportion can be used for geochronology and dating fossils.

Rare Earth Metal Pricing:-

Rare earth elements are not exchange-traded in the same way that precious (for instance, gold and silver) or non-ferrous metals (such as nickel, tin, copper, and aluminium) are. Instead of they are sold in the private market, Which makes their prices difficult to monitor and track. The 17 elements are not usually sold in their pure form, but they are distributed in mixtures of varying purity. As such, the pricing can vary based on the quantity and quality required by the end user’s application.

ELEMENTS RARE EARTH

Atomic NumberSymbolNameSelected applications
21ScScandium Light aluminium-scandium alloy for aerospace components, additive in Mercury-vapor lamps.[4]
32GeGermaniumOptics, Electronics, Semiconductor detectors
39YYttriumYttrium-aluminium garnet (YAG) laser, yttrium vanadate (YVO4) as host for europium in TV red phosphor YBCO high-temperature superconductors, yttrium iron garnet (YIG) microwave filters.[4]
49InIndiumDental amal gam alloy, nuclear reactor, electronic industries, solar cell, electrical component, low melting alloy
57LaLanthanumHigh refractive index glass, flint, hydrogen storage, battery-electrodes, camera lenses, fluid catalytic cracking catalyst for oil refineries
58CeCeriumChemical oxidizing agent, polishing powder, yellow colors in glass and ceramics, catalyst for self-cleaning ovens, fluid catalytic cracking catalyst for oil refineries, ferrocerium flints for lighters
59PrPraseodymiumRare-earth magnets, lasers, core material for carbon arc lighting, colorant in glasses and enamels, additive in didymium glass used in welding goggles,[4] ferrocerium firesteel (flint) products.
60NdNeodymiumRare-earth magnets, lasers, violet colors in glass and ceramics, ceramic capacitors
61PmPromethiumNuclear batteries
62SmSamariumRare-earth magnets, lasers, neutron capture, masers
63EuEuropiumRed and blue phosphors, lasers, mercury-vapor lamps, NMR relaxation agent
64GdGadoliniumRare-earth magnets, high refractive index glass or garnets, lasers, X-ray tubes, computer memories, neutron capture, MRI contrast agent, NMR relaxation agent
65TbTerbiumGreen phosphors, lasers, fluorescent lamps
66DyDysprosiumRare-earth magnets, lasers
67HoHolmiumLasers
68ErErbiumLasers, vanadium steel
69TmThuliumPortable X-ray machines
70YbYtterbiumInfrared lasers, chemical reducing agent
71LuLutetiumPET Scan detectors, high refractive index glass

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